This research was conducted from a review of bibliographic content on Biotechnology, sustainable development, social responsibility and Industry 4.0. The goal endows the understanding of the role of Biotechnology as a science in sustainable development in this historical phase experienced by humanity, the Fourth Industrial Revolution, verifying what would be the social responsibility of Industry 4.0 in this context. Dialectical and historical methods were used to systematize the obtained data. The importance of maintaining the environmental balance through sustainable practices in the daily life of Industry 4.0 has been demonstrated to comply with the constitutional principle of the social function of property. However, in order to achieve sustainable development, the economic and social aspects, besides the environmental, must be considered. The relevance of Biotechnology in this process has been proven as a driving force for sustainable development. It is hoped with this research to mobilize the academic community and the society in the fight against environmental degradation, bringing knowledge about the role of Biotechnology in this process, in the context of Industry 4.0, and demonstrating the need for companies, professionals and governments to adapt to this new and unknown reality in order to face the problems that are already emerging, always taking into consideration the protection of human rights, especially the healthy and balanced environment, safety, life and dignity of the human person.