This paper presents a study of the techniques and materials used in vaginoplasty surgeries performed around the world. It consists of a systematic review that covered the identification, selection and critique of primary studies of topics involving the use of vaginal molds in surgeries for different patients: women with Mayer-Rokitansky syndrome; and transgender patients who underwent sex reassignment surgery (CRS), that is, patients with gender dysphoria. The researches made in the chosen databases, after applying the criteria of inclusion and exclusion of articles, resulted in 19 publications, which represented the basis of the construction of this work. It also focuses on the description of the technologies, materials and methods used in the manufacture of vaginal molds used in surgery. In all studies, the molds have the function of maintaining the structure of the neovagina, thus avoiding vaginal stenosis, besides fixing the material used as a graft in the new cavity, covering it, favoring epithelization.