From nano to macro: Enabling Nanotechnologies for Human Organ Biofabrication (Electrospun Nanofibers and Hybrid Technique)

Rodrigo Alvarenga Rezende, Marcos Antonio Sabino, Janaína de Andréa Dernowsek, Fábio de Albuquerque Vilalba, Vladimir Mironov, Jorge Vicente Lopes Silva


This review proposes to present how materials at nanolevel scale can contribute to the development of three-dimensional (3D) structures, human tissues, and organs which have macrolevel organization. Specific nanomaterials such as nanofibers and nanoparticles are presented and discussed in their application for biofabricating 3D human tissues and organs. The concept of self-assembling magnetic tissue spheroids as an intermediate mesolevel structure between nano and macrolevel organization and building blocks for biofabrication in dual scale level of complex 3D human tissues and organs is detached. The challenges and perspectives of employing nanomaterials and nanotechnological strategies in the biofabrication were also traced.


Nanotechnology; Nanofibers; Nanoparticles; Tissue engineering; Additive manufacturing; Biofabrication; Electrospinning; Dual-scale; Organ printing

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